Wiring rules in the apartment. Order procedure and stages of work
For electrical work during the construction of new facilities, overhaul and reconstruction of old there are standard requirements for registration and documentation. The same approved procedure is envisaged for the preparation of executive acts of examination and acceptance of work, of individual sections of power supply in engineering and technical networks.
Standard requirements and the composition of the documents apply to the design of preparatory production processes, monitoring the progress of electrical work and at the facilities using atomic energy. The composition of the documentation package establishes the requirement for the composition of electricity, the content of the acts of acceptance of construction.
Determination of as-built documentation
In the standard descriptions of state standards and specifications in accordance with the laws of the Federation of RussiaThe following terms are introduced:
The composition of the documents of preparation for the production of electrical work and the construction of nuclear facilitiesThe following sections are included:
- a package of documents that represents the installation company for the preparatory work;
- technological and organizational papers that are developed directly by the executive contracting organization.
Standard Permit Requirements
Before the start of assembly work, the organization takes part in the competitive selection and submits a set of papers to the customer for consideration, which is prepared in accordance with the Civil Code and Federal Law. These documents are drawn up by the installer and transferred to the customer or the general contractor. Initial iscertificate of admission to a particular type which may affect the safe operation of other capital construction projects.
To obtain such a certificate, an enterprise must have a license from environmental, technological and nuclear supervision regarding the possibility of performing work.A permit will be required from the Ministry of Civil Defense and the state of emergency to carry out repairs and maintenance of fire safety equipment. It is necessary to obtain a license from the Russian Federal Service to conduct work processes related to the use of information of state importance and constituting state secrets.
Additional documents are submitted, such as an extract from the registration and state register and the permission of the Federal Service confirming the organization’s right to issue permits for works that affect the surrounding objects. Availability of such documentschecked by the installer during the preliminary inspection before the competition or during the external and internal audits.
Allowing documents for work
To start work, the installation company has a general contract with the customer, who can negotiate with another specialized organization after customer approval. A company that has expressed willingness to perform electrical work,provides documentation package confirming its ability to produce:
All working documents are drawn up, signed andagreed in accordance with the procedure operating in the enterprise.
Control documentation of wiring
For high-quality performance of production processesThe following controls are provided:
- control at the entrance of materials, equipment and parts;
- operational control of selected stages of production;
- inspection of the previous stages of electrical work, the results of which will be hidden after the subsequent operations;
- test results of technical instruments and devices.
The entrance control procedure is standard, unless otherwise provided for in the CPD, and is governed by the relevant provision of the customer STO 95 137–13, which determines the procedure for carrying out quality checks of equipment and materials supplied by the customer or the general contractor.
Based on these standards, the installerdevelops its own instructions agreed with the customer, approved by the head of the company and put into effect by the order of the organization.According to the results of the check at the entrance, the staff draws up an acceptance act, which records the fact of compliance or non-compliance with the stated requirements.
Information about the operational control performed by the installation organization is described in acts or effective protocols. For the operational control of the customer, state inspection documents are applied. Documents of operational control include the log of supervision, cable laying, installation of cable sleeves with voltage above 1 thousand volts.
The results of the examination of the hidden works are recorded in the acts in accordance with the provisionsproject and regulatory documentation . In the SNIP developed special lists of electrical work, subject to activation for hidden work.
Executive documentation of quality control of electrical work
All stages of the inspection and quality control of the production process are documented by representatives of the company or the supervisor of the general contractor. All discrepancies with the flow charts leading to a deterioration in the quality of the processesBe sure to be recorded in the relevant acts at all stages of electrical work, ranging from input control and ending with final acceptance.Content:
Modern apartments are equipped with all types of communications, including electrical networks. When performing repair or new construction, electrical installation work in an apartment in its importance occupy one of the first places. All technical conditions are determined by the rules of electrical installations (PUE) and require rigorous implementation. Due to the complexity of electrical circuits and large installation volumes, such work should be performed only by qualified specialists.
Stages of electrical work
Before you perform electrical work in the apartment, a plan is drawn up that determines the sequence and stages of implementation. In the future, this will solve many problems and reduce the time of each operation. A well-written document reflects, provides not only convenience in further work, but also maximum safety for the involved specialists.
The first stage begins after redevelopment and dismantling.During this period, marking activities become the main event. Marked lines of passage of wires, the installation location of lighting and other equipment. Further on the marked places are laid pipes and switches. After that, the wires are mounted and pre-connected to all points to test the performance of the system.
The second stage begins upon completion of the finishing work. At this time, installed lighting devices, mounted power equipment.
Preparation for performance of electric installation work
The main stages of electrical work in the apartment are further divided into smaller parts. First of all, the old elements of the power supply system are dismantled - sockets, switches, and in some cases wires. The main requirement for dismantling is the complete absence of electricity in the network. To do this, you must turn off the power with the help of automatic devices installed in the switchboard.
Next is the markup, the application of which is carried out in accordance with the project documentation.For marks, surfaces of rooms are used where the points of installation of switches, sockets and lighting devices are marked. Lines are drawn under the wires and cables of the future network. The marking of the installation sites of all the planned instruments is carried out in compliance with the distances determined by modern standards. In the process of marking should be taken into account and other systems, passing close to electrical networks. First of all, it is heating, water supply and sewerage, as well as computer and television networks.
The main part of the preparatory work is in the device in the walls of the grooves - gates, necessary for laying the hidden wiring. To do this, use a hammer drill, a grinder with a diamond disc, or a special wall chaser (if available). During the production of works it is recommended to use headphones and a respirator that protects against noise and dust.
You should first check the walls, where possible there is an old hidden wiring. Otherwise, intersection with it may lead to a short circuit. The direction of the grooves under the wiring should be strictly vertical or horizontal.The distance from the wiring to the angle is 10 cm or more. The same standard is used for doors and windows. Obligatory observance of the established distances allows to exclude casual damage of new wires and cables at the further performance of finishing works.
Performance of electrical work
Wiring in the apartment can be done in an open or closed way. In most cases, the second option is used, as more reliable and secure. The only drawback of the hidden wiring is the complexity of the repair in case of its damage.
The cross section of cables and wires is determined in advance, depending on the total load of electrical appliances available in the house. In order to avoid network overloads, it is recommended to divide the power supply system into separate lines. Each of them connects established groups of consumers with a total capacity of not more than 4 kW.
On some lines, a higher load is planned in advance, so they are carried out separately. Through them power is supplied to equipment with high power - washing machines, electric stoves, electric water heaters and other similar devices.Each such line provides for the installation of a circuit breaker that protects the network from overloads and short circuits.
When wiring wires, it is necessary to pay attention to their colors corresponding to a specific purpose. For example, the ground wire is colored yellow-green, the phase wire is red or brown, and the neutral wire is blue. It is forbidden to lay electrical and television cable into the common gutter, otherwise interference may occur. At the end of the wiring and installation, a wiring diagram is compiled without fail. Many organizations prefer to perform electrical work in the apartment.
After laying the wires, sockets, switches, junction boxes and other equipment are installed. When performing these works it is necessary to follow the established rules to ensure the safety of installation. Sockets and switches installed in an open way should be mounted in socket boxes with a wall thickness of at least 10 mm and a diameter of 70 mm made of a dielectric material. Installation boxes with hidden wiring are mounted in the finished hole and secured with plaster mortar. All sockets are connected in parallel with the main wires.
When installing switches for discontinuities, a phase conductor is used. This measure ensures a quick disconnection of the power supply in the event of a short circuit. After this installation, you can safely replace the bulbs and sockets.
All wiring accessories, including meters, must be installed with the expectation of free access to them in case of repair or replacement. by connecting terminals. Due to this, the contact wire becomes more reliable, preventing sparks and heating wires.
Checking the system after electrical work
Until recently, the safety and quality of the wiring installation was not specifically carried out. This event was carried out only after the completion of the entire construction, and later malfunctions were regularly eliminated.
Currently, acceptance tests in the apartment are mandatory. They significantly increase the reliability and safety of electrical wiring, household appliances and equipment. For such checks, there are special laboratories equipped with modern equipment and staffed by qualified personnel.A relatively low price is quite acceptable for customers.
Upon completion of electrical work, before proceeding with the operation of the wiring, the quality of work is subject to mandatory verification, which includes a whole range of activities:
- The quality of the installation of switches, sockets and other wiring accessories is monitored. Improper attachment of these devices may result in a short circuit. Particular attention is paid to the quality of installation of the switchboard, since the malfunctions are found here most often and mostly with serious consequences.
- Control of compliance of the wiring diagram with the project of the power supply system.
- Grounding check, which is now necessarily installed in each apartment.
- The quality of fixing fixtures and other electricity consumers is checked.
Despite the fact that the cost of electrical work in the apartment increases slightly, these additional costs spent on checking electrical work are fully justified. This event allows not only to keep household appliances and equipment intact, but also to avoid accidents associated with electric shock.
Electrical wiring must be laid according to a specially created plan for this. The basis of this plan, which can help you later, put two parameters:
- electrical safety;
- Ease of use.
When developing such a plan, it is necessary to consider:
Sockets, switches, junction boxes, electric meters should be located in places where they are easy to maintain and repair. But at the same time all conductive parts must be insulated. Switches must be positioned so that the open door does not block access to them. The height of the location should not exceed 1.5 m. It will be very convenient if all the switches in the house are located on the same side.
Electrical outlets are made in places where household appliances will be located at a height of 80 cm from the floor. According to the rules of fire safety for every 6 m2 of the area of the house should be at least one outlet. In the kitchen, in this area, you must place at least three outlets. Inside the bathroom and toilet rooms can not install any sockets or switches. Sockets for electric shavers and hair dryers are an exception.as they are powered via a double insulated isolation transformer or a residual current device with a leakage current of 10mA 230 / 400V.
Electrical installation of the transformer is made in a special unit outside these premises. Also, do not install sockets at a distance of less than 50 cm from metal objects that can be grounded. Sockets installed in adjacent rooms on a common wall, it is convenient to position in parallel through the hole in the wall. The location of the electrical wires must be accurately known so as not to damage them during any work. Therefore, the wires need to be placed only vertically or horizontally.
Horizontal wiring is carried out at a distance of not more than one meter from the eaves and beams, up to one and a half meters from the ceiling and up to two meters from the plinth. Electric cables laid vertically must be removed from the corners of the room, windows and doors by at least one meter. Special attention should be paid to ensure that the electrical wires do not touch the metal parts of the building structure.
Electrical installation near pipelines and flammable substances is made at a distance of 4 meters from them.If there are pipes with hot water (heating or hot water), the wiring should be insulated from their impact with asbestos gaskets, or use an electrical wire that has a special coating. In any room, branches and wiring connections for wiring are performed in junction boxes. Zero protective conductors of grounding must be interconnected by twisting.
Wiring with electrical appliances that require grounding is done with bolts. Stationary electric stoves, in which the body is made of metal, are vanished. To do this, you need to lay a separate electrical wire from the panel of the apartment, whose cross section will be equal to the cross section of the phase wire. It must be connected to the neutral wire of the supply network. In the wires that provide a grounding or grounding, you can not have fuses or switches. Otherwise, when protection works, devices located on this line will be under dangerous voltage for them. These are the main points that should be used when creating a plan for electrical wiring at home.
To a large extent, all the rules of electrical work apply only to electrical safety. Therefore, during electrical work, it is impossible for electricians to let everything take their course, without taking these rules into account. Only accuracy in electrical work can save you from various troubles.
WIRING WIRING IN THE APARTMENT.
Do I need to do electrical wiring in the apartment yourself? Of course not. Naturally, if you are not an electrician. Electrical work is a very dangerous and serious matter to entrust to its non-professionals. In this regard, it is worth knowing the basics of the work of electricians.
The first rule of wiring. The electrical wiring of the apartment must be done immediately throughout the apartment. To make wiring in parts is undesirable. If you replace the wires partially (just put the sockets and switches on new places) without replacing the wires, it will result in a significant number of new connections. It is worth noting that any connection will lead to a weakening of reliability and quick failure. As well as aluminum wires do not like to be touched.When bent, they crack and this, over time, can cause serious damage. This will lead to the fact that after a short period of time it is necessary to re-open the walls and lay new wiring.
The second rule of electrical installation says that everything must be thought out in advance. First of all, it is necessary to develop a clear plan for the placement of chandeliers, sconces, lamps, sockets and switches. Next you need to think about the placement of household appliances. To powerful household appliances need to lay a separate reinforced wires. And as a result of this, it is not easy to swap them in places.
The third rule of electrical installation suggests that you should correctly calculate energy consumption. On the passports of household appliances, find out their power consumption and fold those that will be connected on the same line. It is necessary to distribute them so that the power on one line does not exceed 3.5 kW.
The fourth rule of wiring reminds that savings are not appropriate. It is very dangerous to live in an apartment where poor-quality switches, sockets, junction boxes and tubes for wires are used.Naturally, if you do not plan to make a royal castle, then it makes no sense to purchase these products with an incredible design and at a fabulously high price. Reliability is something that should clearly define your final choice. It is better to choose a middle ground, and not the Chinese cheap stuff, or, conversely, an exclusive for the most affluent. The ideal option in terms of price / quality ratio is industrial Turkish and German products. When choosing switches for chandeliers, you should pay attention to those that have built-in dimers. A dimer is a switch that can increase or mix the brightness of the light. This makes it possible to create a variety of lighting options in the room (from the brightest to the twilight) and at the same time there will be a saving of electricity. Sockets should be only "Euro" - all appliances only works from them.
The fifth rule of electrical installation says that you should not climb into the shield without the presence. A specialist should work here. If there is no knowledge of electrical work, then it is impossible to understand the wiring diagrams of the RCD devices. It is necessary to single out the main thing - it is not necessary to connect all devices to the same line of protection.When a leak or short circuit occurs, only the damaged line is disconnected, and not all household appliances in the house. To do this, and create a separate line with the protection of the bathroom, kitchen appliances, sockets and light. The same division can be organized into rooms so that the corridor remains lit even when the light in the rooms is turned off.
The sixth rule of wiring determines the order of work. Wiring is performed immediately after the redevelopment, but before the start of finishing works. The lines of wires from the shield on the stairs are introduced into the apartment and stacked in place along the previously created routes. The wires must be in special pipes (corrugated or smooth). The wire in the corrugated tube is very difficult to change. In this case, the integrity of the walls will have to be broken. Junction boxes should be installed at the points where the wires are connected so that access to them is easy enough. Such boxes are closed with plastic covers, and on top - with finishing materials. To notice them is very difficult. And if you have to open the box, the finish on such a small piece is easy to restore.
The seventh rule of electrical installation concerns your future life and repair. It is necessary to provide the simplest replacement of wires at the exact moment when they begin to fail. The service life of aluminum wire is 25-30 years, for copper wire it is slightly longer. But the need for electrical work arises completely unexpectedly, for example, when the wiring is damaged from external causes.
The wiring of each individual apartment is individual. Therefore, in this article we consider the general principles of high-quality wiring in the apartment.
Electricity is supplied to the apartment through a switchboard. The switchboard contains electricity metering devices and protection devices. The switchboard can be located in a niche or just on the wall. The most convenient location of the distribution panel immediately at the entrance.
If the administrative shield is located outside the apartment, then you should stretch the copper wire (section of more than 6 mm square) through the automatic circuit breaker to the inner shield. The switchboard should be installed at a height of 1.5 meters from the floor level.This will provide convenient access to the instruments. The shield contains: automatic switches, an electricity meter, a protective shutdown device (RCD). RCD is designed for power outages at power surges. This helps protect household appliances from damage and protects people from possible electric shock. The parameters of the devices installed in the switchboard are calculated depending on the power consumption.
In modern apartments, electrical wiring is hidden under plaster. If any part of the walls is sewn up with drywall, then the wire should be pulled in a special protective sleeve.
In order to make installation of concealed wiring in the wall, the recess will be made to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. The gate must be performed only after careful marking on the wall. The marking for the wire on the wall is made under the horizontal and vertical level. The wires in the strobes are pre-fastened with alabaster and then finally with plaster. If the wire is stretched in a protective sleeve, it remains possible, if necessary, to pull the wires without disturbing the plaster, but the cost of the work increases.Also, the use of a protective box or pipe provides protection for electrical wiring.
To perform electrical wiring in the apartment, you must use copper wire in PVC insulation. The wire should be single core. It is less oxidized in comparison with stranded, because it has a smaller surface.
Sockets and switches should be installed in the wall flush in special plastic boxes. The size of the boxes should match the sockets and switches. Flashing boxes are attached to the wall surface by alabaster. Also, when installing them, leave a hole for the wire.
Each room should be equipped with general lighting, which if desired can be supplemented with local lighting (floor lamp, wall lamp, desk lamp, etc.). It is believed that 1 socket per 6 square meters of room space is enough. But there are also features, for example, in the kitchen there are always not enough sockets, because modern housewives have a myriad of household appliances, ranging from a mixer to a dishwasher. Therefore, before you do the wiring in the kitchen, calculate the approximate number of electrical appliances.The bathroom has two outlets (washing machine, electric shaver and hairdryer), we note that this line must be equipped with a protection device. The rooms must have at least four outlets. In the corridor you need at least two outlets.
Switches are best installed wide two-key. They are usually located near the door outside or inside the room. The location of the switches from the floor level 70 - 105 centimeters, and sockets 30 centimeters. It is important to ensure that the open door does not block access to the switch. Switches and sockets must be purchased with ceramic internals and copper contacts.
If the power line is one, then the electricity wiring will be next. From the switchboard, which is located at the entrance to the apartment, conduct the main wire. Then through the connecting boxes from him conduct the wiring of electricity throughout the apartment. In junction boxes, you need to leave a small margin of wire (approximately 5-7 centimeters) for possible later repair. This option of distributing was applied for a long time, and in old apartments remained so far.
There are several power lines in modern apartments. In this case, separate leads to each line from the RCD in the switchboard. Protection devices and wires with such wiring need significantly more, which accordingly will increase the cost of wiring. However, this will increase the reliability of the power supply network. This layout leaves the lines independent, which subsequently facilitates the troubleshooting.
It is important to remember that all electrical work in the apartment should be carried out with a de-energized network. The supply of wires to the power supply should be done last, after a complete check of the electrical circuit.
The power grid in a city apartment or a country house is becoming more complex with the advent of new household appliances. Air conditioners, water heaters, electric heated floors not only make our life more comfortable, but also create an additional load on the electrical grid.
Therefore, in the course of the repair it is important to pay attention to the quality of cable products and the qualifications of the master, to whom you entrust the execution of electrical work.Attracting random craftsmen can lead to disastrous consequences.
Skilled craftsmen have the necessary qualifications for the device of an electrically conductive network of any complexity.
Installation of electrical lines should be made only on the basis of approved Rosenergonadzor. Design documentation implies the availability of drawings, layouts of lines, specifications of materials used and electrical products.
What is the design for? It provides electrical and fire safety. Safety shutdown devices prevent a person from being electrocuted by disconnecting an electrical circuit when it leaks. RCDs protect the network from overload and fire insulation. By disconnecting the network damaged by the melting of the insulation, the device prevents the occurrence of fire.
- 1 way - open
In this case, the wiring is mounted in protective boxes or cable channels.
The advantage of this method of posting is the ease of installation and maintenance, the ability to transfer to another location.
The downside of this wiring is controversial aesthetics, not always appropriate looking in an expensive apartment and a decrease in usable space. Therefore, this method of wiring is chosen mainly in the case of regulatory or technical restrictions on the use of the hidden method of wiring installation.
- 2 way - hidden
In this case, they are fined, i.e. hollow out channels in the wall, in which corrugated pipes with cables are then placed. After completion of the work, the penalties are plastered. The advantages of such wiring are the aesthetic appearance of the wall with a finishing and reliability of protection from external influences.
- in the wall - strictly horizontally or vertically with respect to outlets and switches;
- in the subfloor - on the perimeter of the room with a space of about ten centimeters from the wall.
During the master must take into account the location of the wiring, so as not to damage it during the drilling of walls and laying flooring.
For the formation of a modern power grid using a three-core cable. It is made of copper wire and consists of phase, earth, zero, insulation, filling and sheath.
Before starting the modernization of the power supply system, it is necessary to dismantle the old electrical wiring.
As a rule, previously used a two-core cable with aluminum conductors phase and zero. Meanwhile, the grounding of the electrical network during the installation of the power supply system is necessary, for this there is a protective earth conductor (PE) in the three-core cable.
In addition, aluminum wire compared with copper is significantly worse in strength, conductivity, yield (this term refers to the slip from the contacts).
Completing the old wiring with new UZO does not make sense.
How many cable lines need to be installed depends on the number of household appliances and lighting fixtures, rosettes and their placement in the apartment.
Which cable to use during installation depends on the power of the electricity consumers. For conducting wiring in the apartment, as a rule, a cable with a cross section of one and a half, two and a half, as well as four and six square millimeters is used.
What cable section should be used depending on the maximum load on the line - you can check it in a special table.
- for the lighting network, a section of 1.5 square mm is necessary.,
- for the socket group - 2.5 square mm.,
- for electric cookers - 4 square mm.
To complete the electrical network, it is necessary to use only high-quality wire from well-known manufacturers such as Nexans, Sevkabel, and Pirelli. The poor quality product on the market does not correspond to the declared section, which is difficult to determine by eye, since we are talking about millimeters and also contains metal with impurities, which may entail the risk of fire.
Installation of electrical wiring in a hidden way
Installation of electrical wiring is carried out in two stages. At the first stage - draft work: stubbing walls, laying cables, installing a power shield. Upon completion of this stage, the customer and representatives of the operating and construction organizations sign the act of performing hidden works. It is also necessary to obtain the approval of Energonadzor. At the second stage, sockets and switches are mounted.
Consider in more detail the stages of installation:
- Markings are made on the wall, where further switches, sockets, and lines of channels will be located.
- In the wall hollow out the grooves (channels) for laying cables.
- In addition to the channels in the wall, hollows are hollowed out to install the box for mounting the socket and switch mechanisms. It is very important to correctly calculate the size of the niche so that the box is not below the wall surface.
- With the help of steel wire, cables are led into plastic corrugated pipes - the protective sheath, and the electrical wiring is prepared for laying in channels in a hidden way.
- Lay the wiring in the prepared channels and secure with plastic clips and mounting tape.
- In the prepared recesses mounted installation boxes for mounting sockets and switch.
- Wiring lines lead into installation boxes (installation of sockets and switches will be done after the completion of the finishing work).
- Cable lines lead to the installation site of the power shield.
- Mounted and completed power shield. The power shield is the control center of the power grid. As a rule, it is a plastic or metal cabinet with a shockproof or dull cover. Inside the cabinet are metal profiles to which electrical modules are attached. Mounted RCD.
During the wiring, the cable is connected to sockets and switches, if necessary, diluted or connected by means of distribution or junction wiring boxes.
To do this, use the connecting terminals - screw or spring. Although the screw terminals are easier to install, but you can flatten the wire, reducing its conductive capacity, which means that it creates a threat of heating. In addition, they must be periodically checked and tightened.
Spring (self-tightening) terminals do not need to be inspected and tightened due to the spring securing the cable with a certain force, thereby ensuring electrical and fire safety.