What is GSM?

Before you figure out how GSM works, it's important to understand what GSM is.

GSM - the international digital standard of planetary value, whose name originated from the phrase "Groupe Spécial Mobile".

This standard is designed for mobile cellularchannel separation. The channels are divided according to the principle of TDMA. The standard was developed by the Telecommunication Standardization Institute in the late eighties of the last century.

The very first such system was created in the distant 1946 in the United States of America. Global introduction of mobile communication began only in 1979.


Before GSM start, at the very beginning of the eightiesyears of the last century on the European territory there were 24 analog networks. They were not compatible with each other, so the issue of creating a single standard became urgent. The need to solve this problem caused the creation of a GSM group (Group Special Mobile). This group includes representatives of 24 countries in Europe. Mannesmann's system was chosen as a digital standard, and this system was introduced in 1991 in Germany.

Under the acronym GSM today is hiding a slightly different word combination - Global System for Mobile. The GSM standard itself or its versions work successfully in 80 countries of the world.

How GSM Works

In order to implement this type of communication in a certain territory, the following actions are applied:

  • Installation of receiving and transmitting stations of stationary type. Each of the stations operates in relatively small areas of several kilometers.
  • The stations are arranged in such a way as to overlap each other. This allows the signal of the subscriber to move from one zone to another, and the communication is not violated.

To implement this type of communication, in practiceThe neighboring stations are tuned to different frequencies. Such frequencies are usually about three. Using three different frequencies, stations in the form of a triangle overlapped the service areas.

There is also a fourth station, which canuse one of the frequencies again. This is possible, since it borders on two zones. Thus, the zone of operation of the station will resemble a hexagon, having the appearance of a honeycomb.

GSM - modules

Everyone has heard, but not everyone knows what GSM is-module. Meanwhile, this is a very useful device that uses the principles of GSM. More specifically, the gsm-module is a device that helps to monitor the location of your car. This device works in conjunction with an alarm or a mobile phone. You can also, if necessary, block the engine.

This module identifies the subscriber of mobile communication. You learned about this when you read about what a GSM network is.

Advantages and disadvantages of the GSM standard

Advantages of the GSM standard:

  • Smaller in comparison with analog standards, the dimensions and weight of the apparatus. In this case, the operating time without recharging is much higher.
  • The quality of communication is very high.
  • Low level of interference at specified frequencies.
  • Protection from eavesdropping. Also, due to encryption algorithms, the connection is protected from illegal use.
  • Vast areas of distribution.
  • Ability to use roaming. Roaming is the ability to move from one network to another without losing its number

Disadvantages of the GSM standard:

  • Due to digital speech processing, speech can be somewhat distorted.
  • The distance covered by the network is not too large. It is only 120 kilometers.

Thus, for the time being gsm remains a developing technology, but, nevertheless, its importance in the world can not be overestimated. After all, we use it every day.

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