What is an emergency?
The emergency situation isa certain territorial area that arose as a result of a disaster, an accident (for example, at nuclear power plants) that destroys a natural phenomenon (for example, a tsunami) or a natural disaster. The latter, in turn, entails a threat to human health, a mortal danger to human life, a threat to the environment and the environment, material losses and disruption of the normal life of the society as a whole.
Main characteristics of emergency situations
We figured out what an emergency situation is, now we will give definitions to the main categories of emergencies.
The starting point of any emergency is the so-calledsource of an emergency. They can be a rapidly spreading infectious disease of people (for example, a plague), a natural phenomenon, an accident that is technogenic in nature, or the use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical weapons). All these sources are the catalysts of the state of emergency in a certain part of the globe.
The consequences of the disaster are determined by two key categories:
- Losses. This includes the death of people, the receipt of injuries and injuries;
- Damage. Includes material and financial damage to the territory where the emergency occurred.
Classification of emergencies
Classification of emergencies is made according to various signs.
In terms of scale and severity of consequences:
- ES at the local level, when the territory where the accident or natural disaster occurred, does not go beyond the zone of the ES object; the number of victims is no more than 10 people.
- ES at the municipal level, when the area of damage does not go beyond the territory of one district, settlement or territory within the city; the number of victims is no more than 50 people.
- Emergencies at the intermunicipal level, the area of emergency covers the territory of two or more settlements.
- ES at the regional level, the distribution zone is limited to the territory of one RF subject.
- ES at the federal level, when the number of victims exceeds 500.
The nature of the emergence of emergencies are:
- Technogenic - caused by an accident, explosion, fireon a chemically hazardous site (for example, nuclear power plants), followed by the release of environmentally hazardous substances into the atmosphere, as well as substances that pose a threat to human life (radiation). Transport accidents, industrial accidents are also technogenic emergency situations.
- Natural - are the consequence of natural elements,such as a hurricane, a tornado, an earthquake, a flood, an eruption of an active volcano, forest fires, landslides, snow avalanches. About how to act in case of fire in the forest, you will learn from our article What to do in case of fire
- Environmental emergency: pollution of the atmosphere and the biosphere, destruction of the ozone layer of the Earth.
- Biological emergency: epidemics with a high rate of spread and a large number of human casualties.
- Social emergencies are the result of the activity of the society and are engendered by the society, including civil wars, world wars, terrorism, hunger, etc.
In terms of the speed of development, emergencies are classified into:
- sudden - for example, a volcanic eruption;
- rapid - associated, for example, with the spread of fire during forest fires;
- moderate - floods, floods.
Causes of Emergencies
Why do emergencies arise? There are two groups of reasons:
- Internal: shortcomings of designers of any objects, where emergence of emergencies is possible, deterioration of equipment, low labor competence;
- External: terrorist acts, various wars, natural and natural disasters, unexpected disconnection of gas, electricity.