What are the causes of the English Revolution in the mid-12th century? What are the causes of the English Revolution in the mid-12th century?

What are the causes of the English Revolution in the mid-12th century? What are the causes of the English Revolution in the mid-12th century?

  1. The English Civil War, known as the English Revolution of the 12th century, or the English bourgeois revolution, as it was called in Soviet historiography, is the process of the transfer of power in England from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional order in which the power of the king began to be limited to the power of parliament, civil liberties.
    The bourgeois revolution in England took the form of a conflict between the legislative and executive powers, which resulted in a civil war, as well as in the form of religious strife. During the English bourgeois revolution, an element of the national struggle between the Scots, the Irish and the English was noted, although it played a secondary role.
    The reason for the war was unconstitutional acts of the king, and the reason - the struggle for power between the king and parliament.
    Revolutionary situation.
    Feudal disunity, internecine wars. The War of the Scarlet and White Rose (end of the 15 century) led to:
    1) the self-destruction of the barons in Normandy;
    2) the strengthening of the power of the king.
    The reformation ended in 1534 with the act of Henry 8 about the supremacy, according to which the Anglican Church was recognized as independent of the Catholic Church and its head was proclaimed King of England, and not the Pope. The Reformation ended in severe social shocks, the main of which was fencing and its consequences. After the discovery of America began the import of gold from there:
    1) depreciation of the European coin;
    2) the inability of the feudal lord to change fixed in a fixed equivalent duties and taxes;
    3) refusal of monetary duties;
    4) seizure of land from peasants and renting it at flexible prices ("fencing"). The deprived peasants became vagabonds, the state hanged them. Under Henry 8 there were 40 thousand hanged.
    By the end of 16 the beginning of 17 centuries in England formed an absolute monarchy.
    Features of an absolute monarchy.
    1) strong central, but not divine, power of the monarch;
    2) the existence of the ruling elite under the monarch.
    In England, the ruling elite were:
    1) Stellar Royal Chamber of Justice (it was administered without mandatory witnesses and lawyers for that time);
    2) The Privy Council is the supreme fiscal body, the treasury (this included F. Bacon the bribe taker).
    Not all were happy with the outcome of the Reformation. The Anglican Church is being criticized. There are various Protestant groups fighting for power, the Puritans. The Puritans are politically and ideologically fragmented during the most radical Protestants.
    The main parties of the Puritans:
    1) Presbyterians: At the head of the church there should be a national congress of elders presbyter. The most conservative in political terms. The social base is the nobility, the big bourgeoisie. Presbytery is the state religion of Scotland. The British Presbyters demanded the expansion of the powers of Parliament and the reduction of the powers of the Crown.
    2) Independents: every religious community must be independent. They advocated the expansion of electoral law and judicial reform
    3) levailers: Each religious community is independent and determines the identity of the church. The most radical in political terms.
    The beginning of the revolution.
    1628. Karl 1 asks for money from the Parliament. The parliament makes him a petition about the law: claims and condemnation of the king's attempts to independently collect taxes. Karl 1 accepted it, dissolved Parliament, the new did not collect 11 years.
    1640 year Karl 1 gathers Parliament to take money from him to suppress the uprising. Parliament does not give money, Karl 1 dissolves it (Parliament is called "short").
    November 1640 New convocation of Parliament, formally existed for 13 years ("long Parliament"). This date is considered the beginning of the revolution.
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  3. Preconditions of the revolution

    At the end of the 16 beginning of the 17 century, intensive development of the economy takes place in England, primarily in the agrarian region. The reforms of the Tudors led to the concentration of land in the hands of the cash people of the rural gentry nobles and the owners of the manufactories. Enclosure of communal lands for sheep breeding and trade in wool and meat gave them profit and at the same time deprived the source of the poorest peasants who filled up the ranks of the unemployed. A large capitalist lease of land was distributed in the village, a considerable stratum of farmers was created. The interests of these new sections of society came in conflict with feudal law, holding the earth for knightly service to the king.

    What are the causes of the English Revolution in the mid-12th century? What are the causes of the English Revolution in the mid-12th century? Parliament, formally existed for 17 years

    Actually, peasant landownership appeared in England under the threat of extinction. The liberation of the copyhold and its transformation into a freehold became the main condition for the preservation of the peasantry as a class.
    In the industry, there have been significant changes in the forms of organization and division of labor, the manufactory has developed. At the beginning of 17 in. the type of scattered manufactory still prevailed; industrial production was still closely connected with agriculture, thanks to this, the alliance of the bourgeoisie with the new nobility of the gentry was formed. These numerous rural masters, who were both businessmen and industrialists, formed the main opposition force to the ruling regime. Their discontent is strengthened under the kings of the Stuarts dynasty of Jacob I (1603-1625) and Carla I (1625-1649), whose board is marked by the crisis of English absolutism. The English monarchy, which relied on the aristocracy, the feudal nobility and the Anglican church, distributed the monopoly for the production of goods to supplement the treasury, which, along with the shop restrictions, was narrowed by the field of activity of manufacturing entrepreneurs. To combat the unhappy crown introduced extraordinary courts of the Star Chamber and the High Commission.
    The opposition of the monarchy was expressed primarily in protest against its ideological support of the semi-Catholic Anglican Church. In the 16 century, among the new classes, the religious movement of puritanism (from pure pure English) began, striving to purify the church of expensive rituals and sacraments, from the power of bishops, from church courts. An important role in the radicalization of the mood of the masses was played by the English translation of the Bible, which was illegally imported from Geneva. At the beginning of the 17 century, two main trends of Puritanism are formed: along with the Calvinist Presbyterian Church, many nonconformist sects and movements are formed, united by the common name of Independents (independents). The English Revolution was the last revolutionary movement in Europe, held under the banner of the struggle of one religious doctrine against another.

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