Repair of a septic tank "Topas": features of professional and independent service
When there is a breakdown of engineering systems in a private house, it’s time for a joke: here comes the hour of reckoning for a few years of convenience. The failure of the sewage treatment plant seems to stop life in the house - now there is no way to arrange a full cleaning, to wash or wash.
Calling a specialist is not always possible, so you have to carry out the repair of a septic tank TOPAS and maintenance yourself.
Briefly about the principle of the station
Starting to repair the sewage treatment plant, it is necessary to have an idea about the principle of its work. The device is based on the purification of liquid household waste with the help of bacteria.
And if non-volatile systems rely on the work of anaerobic bacteria, whose vital activity is possible in the absence of oxygen, then the Putop treatment plant cleans the waste thanks to anaerobic and aerobic organisms.The difference in the conditions of life of these microorganisms and affects a completely different principle of operation of devices for wastewater treatment.
In the absence of oxygen, the fermentation of the waste mass is performed by anaerobes. The process takes place in the first compartment of the sewage treatment plant. Then the settled and fermented drains are placed at the disposal of the aerobes located in the next three compartments of the system.
Aerobic microorganisms are much faster to break down and process suspended particles and impurities that are in the drains, but they require a constant flow of oxygen. In addition, oxygen is necessary for the oxidation of the mass. Aeration of wastewater is provided by an electric pump, therefore, operation of the device without power supply is impossible.
Septic tank and cleaning technology
Septic tank is divided into four independent tanks, and each has a special function.
The chambers are interconnected in such a way that, with an intensive influx of wastewater, the purification process is accelerated, and with a small amount, it becomes more efficient due to the multiple distillation of waste. Since household wastewater flow is irregular, this feature is very important for the quality and smooth operation of the station.
Continuous current operation
In the case of a continuous flow of waste, the technological process is as follows:
- The supply pipe (1) drains into the first receiving chamber (A) (or, as it is also called the surge tank). There, they are mixed with previously received waste, large particles settle. As soon as the drains reach a certain level, the sensor is triggered.
- Automation includes airlift (3), which pumps the drains through a filter that performs coarse cleaning (2) and a hair catcher into the second chamber (B).It also turns on the compressor (7), which supplies air.
- In the aeration tank (second chamber B), the wastewater is biologically treated with biologically active sludge: large particles are split into smaller ones, and organic matter is processed by aerobes. Bubbles of oxygen injected here at the same time provide mixing of wastewater with activated sludge, and it acts as an adsorber, linking suspended particles.
- The bubbling mixture of sludge and wastewater enters the third compartment - the secondary settling tank (B), pumps their air-lift recirculation (4) through the tank in the form of an inverted pyramid. Here the separation of purified water from activated sludge occurs.
- The sludge separated from the liquid component enters the stabilization compartment (D), and the clarified waters are discharged outside the station through the outlet pipe of the device (9).
The station, with the exception of scheduled inspections and cleaning, does not require user participation - all processes proceed in automatic mode. Purified water can be drained into the ground, the absorption well, gutter, used for irrigation.
Phase reverse cycle (recycling)
If the system receives an insufficient amount of waste for its continuous operation, the installation operates in the recirculation mode. As soon as the level in the first compartment (A) reaches the set minimum value, the float switch (10) is activated. The switch acts on the solenoid valve, and the drains re-run the entire cleaning process.
The recirculation mode occurs in the following sequence:
- In the receiving tank (A) runs aeration drains.
- After the aeration tank (B) the wastewaters are pumped to the stabilization section of the activated sludge (H). There the precipitate is divided into fractions.
- Old and heavy sludge sinks to the bottom of the chamber (D), and light, along with bleached drains, is sent back to the first chamber (A).
As soon as the water mirror in the surge tank (A) reaches its maximum, the system switches to the direct continuous cleaning mode.
How to avoid breakdowns: manufacturer's recommendations
Like any device or mechanism, the system for cleaning wastewater requires regular technical inspection. It consists in a visual assessment of work, carrying out pumping of the accumulated sediment.
During the inspection, you may have to eliminate blockages or carry out a small repair of the TOPAS installation. The regularity of preventive measures is set out in the table.
The design of the septic tank is made in such a way that all the elements can be removed and washed, clean the filter of large impurities from the gathered hair. Sludge from the stabilization chamber must be pumped out at least once a year. If the water in the plumbing system is hard, the station must be cleaned more frequently.
Removal of accumulated sludge from the chambers
The longer the wastewater treatment plant works, the greater the content of sludge and sewage in it, the more contaminated the compressor filter. Therefore, the equipment requires regular cleaning.
All work is performed in a certain sequence:
- Disconnect the device from the power supply. This will allow settling to the bottom of the draft and will provide an opportunity to safely clean the compressor filters.
- Unscrew the screws from the compressor covers to access the filters. The filter in the form of a foam pad is removed and shaken out. If it is heavily contaminated, then rinse under running water and dry. The lids are put back and tightened.
- Within 15 minutes the sludge settles and you can start pumping. To do this, lower the drainage pump to the very bottom of the sludge stabilizer chamber and drain the sediment until the water level drops 50 cm.
- Next, carry out the cleaning of the camera aero. Sludge is pumped out from the bottom, lowering the water mirror by 15 cm.
It is not necessary to completely pump out the activated sludge, because it helps to clean the impurities.
Cleaning all device elements
The next step is to clean the airlift and filter for large fractions:
- Before removing the hoses of the Mamut pump and the filter, tape one of the tubes and the pipe to which it is attached to the tape so as not to confuse them (they have different capacities).
- Disconnect the flexible tube from the pump tube. If it is poorly removed, heat the junction.
- Take out the airlift tube and blow under the pressure of water or air.
- Remove the filter large fractions. It is washed outside, shake out the collected garbage in a bucket, clean the holes from the hair stuck in them, wash the filter from the inside.
- Then the hair catcher is removed and cleaned.
The final stage is flushing the station walls and pipes under pressure, collecting floating debris. Before starting work, compressors are closed with cellophane to protect them from water ingress. Rinse start with the top elements. Good pressure water, which is able to wash the old deposits, gives the high-pressure apparatus.
Assemble the system in reverse order.Hose markings can be left for future maintenance. The following cleaning can be carried out in 6 months.
An efficient cleaning plant at the outlet gives practically pure water without impurities and odors. It can be used for watering lawns, flower gardens, gardens. If the water from the device flows turbid, it signals its poor cleaning.
The culprit of this may be a short period of station operation (up to one month): a new equipment does not have a sufficient amount of biologically active sludge, which plays the main role in wastewater treatment. Faster biological equilibrium can be established by adding activated sludge from an already operating station.
This also happens due to changes in the external conditions: a sharp decrease in temperature, indicating high pH of wastewater or the discharge of chemical agents (for example, containing chlorine) into them.Usually, with the elimination of these causes, the situation normalizes by itself.
If clouding of effluent is observed continuously, then the most likely causes are an increase in the number of drains, insufficient aeration. The latter sometimes happens due to damage to distribution pipes and leakage of oxygen.
The quality of water purification can be determined visually by taking a sample. To do this, from a working device in the aero tank compartment, the boiling liquid is drawn into a container of glass with a volume of about 1 liter. A properly operating unit will have a 2: 8 ratio of settled sludge to clear water.
If the sludge is less, it means that the installation is not yet fully ready for operation or is not sufficiently loaded with sewage. If more, then this may mean that the system cannot cope with large amounts of liquid household waste or the float switch is set low in the compartment and does not switch to recirculation mode.
Failure of the sewage treatment plant and methods for their correction
Virtually all failures of the pumping station are manifested by an increase in the level of runoff in the receiving compartment. Raising the level triggers an emergency float, through which an alarm is triggered - a bell or a light signal. Thus, the user learns about the danger of flooding the system and discharge of untreated wastewater outside the device.
Flooding of wastewater treatment plant
First of all, it is necessary to check whether the drainage channel of treated wastewater from the device may be blocked or frozen. If not, then the search for the cause of flooding the station should be based on the type of equipment. It can be with a gravity discharge system or with forced pumping.
In forced-discharge models, the problem may be a breakdown of the drain pump or sticking of the float switch. To check the operation of the pump it is removed and connected to another outlet. If the pump is OK, but after connecting to the station it does not turn on, then most likely it’s a matter of the float switch - you need to replace it.
The following problems may be common to gravity and forced models. Check whether the fluid is pumped from the receiving compartment to the aeration tank. If not, then the fault is caused by a failure of the airlift. Causes of failure may be as follows:
- damaged airlift tube;
- main pump airlift;
- float switch defective;
- damaged compressor membrane, which supplies air to the airlift.
Breakdowns are eliminated by replacing damaged parts or cleaning clogged areas.
Tripping RCD and power problems
If the RCD (residual current device) is triggered when the station is started, the reason may lie in the damage to the compressor or the drainage pump, float switch. It is also necessary to check the wiring, sockets.
Disturbances in the operation of the installation can also be caused by a prolonged power outage, and then there is a probability of overflow of the tanks and the occurrence of an unpleasant smell due to the onset of the development of anaerobic microorganisms.When the voltage drops in the network within 3% of the nominal value, it is necessary to install a stabilizer.
Water level change in a dead station
It is undesirable to leave the cleaning system TOPAS for a long time without work. But if it did happen, and it was found that the water level in the tank changes, then possible malfunctions can be the following:
- Breakage of plumbing fixtures that leads to water leakage. It is necessary to find the source of leakage and repair or replace.
- Damaged device case. If the problems are small, then the case can be soldered, if not, you need to contact the professionals for help, and they will replace the damaged area. And it’s good if you can get by with repairs, because replacing the whole case will be expensive.
- Incorrect installation and, as a result, flooding with rain or flood water.
- The reservoir of the station should be installed so that the cover rises 15 cm above the ground.
The problem may also be poorly organized exit of purified water from the system. The poor throughput of the soil may aggravate the situation of a bad outflow.
Violation of the operating rules deprives the consumer of the right to warranty service. They also say that maintenance and repair of the UOSV TOPAS can be carried out only by specialists of service enterprises or persons who have studied the installation instructions and have been given safety instructions.
For the long-term and successful use of the station, it is necessary to faithfully implement the recommendations, namely:
- it is forbidden to make structural changes in the station device;
- It is unacceptable to drain various chemicals, products containing chlorine (in large quantities), water obtained from the regeneration of drinking water treatment systems;
- It is prohibited to dump construction waste, biodegradable compounds, food debris and cleaning of forest mushrooms, pet hair into the sewer system.
Despite multiple bans, the manufacturer fully allows for the rational use of modern detergents and hygiene products:
- it is allowed to dump toilet paper into the sewer system;
- you can drain the drains of washing and dishwashers that do not contain chlorine;
- it is allowed not more than once a week to drain a small amount of cleaning products for plumbing, kitchen equipment, sanitary ware;
- it is allowed to dump kitchen drains without restrictions.
In addition, in the event of a power outage, water consumption should be minimized as much as possible in order to prevent overfilling of the chambers and spill of polluted water.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Scheduled cleaning of the TOPAS station is available in video:
Video about the repair station after flooding:
Independently carry out cleaning and repair of LOS TOPAS is quite possible. But, in order to be able to use warranty service, it is better to ask the manufacturer or the seller what kind of work is allowed to be carried out by the users themselves. Otherwise, intervention in the system may deprive of legal rights to free services of customer services.