Mythological creatures. Mythological creatures in Russian folklore
Mythology is a part of the culture of any society,created in every historical era. As a rule, the further the events lag behind us, the less truth remains in the legends. Folk tales, parables and tales differ from the writings of the chroniclers in that in them characters, in addition to people, are mythological creatures, often symbolizing the spiritual principle - both positive and negative. In this case, each of them has some special features of the external appearance, even imaginary, distinguishing them from other legendary characters.
Very, very long time ago
Myths of Ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome, India, China andmany other ancient civilizations were often part of the officially accepted religious-state doctrine at that time. Zeus, Apollo, Atlanteans, Sirens and Medusa of the Gorgon organically participated in the legendary events on a par with the heroic people who acquired for their exploits the godlike. Ancient mythological creatures created by the imagination of priests and commoners, as a result of cultural and historical exchange, became prototypes of mysterious inhabitants of the gloomy world of European and Russian land in the Middle Ages.
Good fellows lesson
A fairy tale is a special kind of myth, for which it is characteristicpenetration into the plot of centuries-old characters. They act among people using their superhuman abilities. These stories are intended for children, and many outstanding literary men have contributed to their writing, in addition to the people. What fairy tale without magic and who can perform them better than mythological creatures? The main thing in them, of course, is not the ways and means, but the goals of actions. In evil characters, they are evil and insidious, and positive ones - on the contrary, as in life.
Babki-Ezhki, Kashchei and Kikimory
In the USSR, there was its own officialmythology, implying a materialistic approach when considering all social phenomena, even those that actually were not. But in art mythological creatures are completely tolerated, especially in works intended for children. Cartoons and films based on Russian fairy tales are full of, besides Alenushek, Ivanushkas, princes and other "human" heroes, such characters as Serpent-Gorynych, Baba-Yaga, Koschey Immortal, Kikimora, Water, and many others. As a rule, the Russian mythological creatures borrowed from folklore look quite fearless, sometimes playfully cute, they carry in their images even a certain negative charm, and the actors performing their roles play with inimitable humor. Children, of course, do not need to scare, but how much does this interpretation correspond to the original source?
Baba-Yaga was an evil old woman, but not simple, whicha lot, but special. This is almost the main mythological creature in Russian folklore. Yaga had a certain connection with demonic forces and the ability to move in three-dimensional space, in other words - to fly. Unlike European analogues, who made flights, as a rule, on a broomstick, domestic Baba Yaga had a more comfortable means of transportation - a stupa, and pomelo used only as a control device. She dressed simply, too much - in rags. Initially, it was impossible to see anything ridiculous in this image. Yaga personified evil will and possessed considerable technical possibilities for its implementation.
Some Russian mythological creatures are verysimilar to foreign counterparts. Snake Gorynych in the past centuries, not without success, frightened children. This is almost identical to the Eastern or European dragon, which has all the features of a modern attack aircraft, namely, the ability to fly, strike ground targets, and also survive. Killing him was a troublesome and almost useless task because of his unique regenerative ability, expressed in the growth of heads in return for lost ones. In some mysterious way, the information contained in the brain was immediately restored and updated. In between aggressive attacks, Gorynych was hiding in an underground creek, disguised as a mountain with a cave. In a feud with such an opponent, there is nothing amusing.
Koshchei is usually depicted as very bad, evenskeleton-like, old man, who nevertheless has a remarkable strength - both physical and moral. The name of the character comes from the word "kosht", that is, bone. The common root is also with the word "koshchuny" (koschstva, they are blasphemy), meaning witchcrafts, produced in ancient times over the remains of people. The title "Immortal" is often added to the main name, expressing the ability to come to life many times, even being crushed by someone's mighty power. Other demonic mythological creatures, the meeting with which, too, can not rejoice, in this sense inferior to Koshchei. To neutralize it finally, you need to know some secrets (a needle, an egg, a bird, etc.).
Are there any good monsters?
Not so many other mythologicalbeings whose list is very extensive. Faced with the unknown, horrified and sensing his own helplessness, people from time immemorial explained their misfortunes by the hostile influence and intrigues of supernatural monsters. Sometimes some of them took the side of good, but in any case they should be treated with extreme caution, so that they did not change their favor to anger. The names of mythological creatures vary from one nation to another, but many common features indicate a similarity of perception and ability to think out external signs.
Demons are represented as tail, goat-legged andhorned in almost all ethnic and religious traditions. The prophetic bird Gamayun, reptiles Basilisks and Aspids, Snowman (traditionally fashioned from snow), Werewolf (in the German version of Werwolf), Ghoul (in Europe his name is a vampire), even Viy himself, the leader of evil spirits who became the hero of the famous novel N.V. Gogol and the eponymous Soviet thriller, far from always becoming fabulous characters. They represent the forces of evil headed by the Prince of Air.
The origins of chimeras
Whatever it was, but the material embodimentevil will is impossible without a visible or imagined physical image. If a good beginning in almost all traditions is almost identical to human-like (Buddha, God the Father, God the Son, Cherubim, Seraphim, Bogatyr, Giant, Fairy, etc.), then the mythological beings that represent the dark side of the intangible world are more animal-like. Particularly terrible images appear in which there is a combination of animal features. In some cases, they are so colossal that one can assume that there are no bad intentions. So, Miracle-Yudo ("copied", obviously, from the most ordinary whale) causes harm simply by negligence, because of its enormous size. Chimeras, whose statues adorn some medieval Gothic cathedrals, are intended, according to the authors' intention, to frighten the demons themselves, they must scare them away with their own kind.
The horror of the appearance of mythological beings is symbolic. She emphasizes the strength, dexterity, courage and intelligence of good heroes, who in the end always win.