How many years of Russia?
The history of Russia as a concept and as a state,according to scientists, more than one hundred years. For the first time the term "Russia" was used, as the Greek name of Rus, in the works of one of the Byzantine emperors - Porphyrogenous Constantine. So all the same, how many years of Russia? At the official level (confirmed by scientific data), the date of the formation of the state is considered to be 862, when Rus was first mentioned in the annals. Accordingly, in 2015, Russia will be 1153 years old.
The name of Russia was fixed subsequently(XIII - XV centuries) for that part of the territory of Russia, which was not part of Poland and Lithuania and united in one state Moscow principality. It is known that when Ivan III was also used this name. When Ivan IV was crowned in the kingdom (1547), the word "Russia" acquired an official status. The lands of the north-east became known as the "Russian Kingdom". However, in Western Europe there was still the name "Muscovy".
In 1721, under Peter I, the RussianThe Empire. Since then, Russia became the Republic (1917), was part of the USSR (1922), became an independent Federation (1991), but in any case the continuity of the adopted name was preserved. According to the laws that now exist, today's Russia is the successor of all these previous state entities that emerged on its territory, one and the same participant in international law, which did not cease to exist for a moment.
Speaking about the prehistory of Russia, it is necessary, probably,say the following. Archaeologists have discovered some of the oldest sites in its modern territory, dating back to the pre-Shelly and Shell periods (2 million - 350,000 years ago), located in the Kuban, Siberia and the Caucasus. The Mousterian cultures (150 thousand years ago) were also common in the European part of the country. Near Voronezh found parking neanthropines (50 thousand - 20 thousand years ago), which is the oldest known. Kostenkovsko-Avdeevskaya culture existed also in the Bryansk, Kursk, Lipetsk, Moscow regions, where the Europeans lived at that time.
"The Tale of Bygone Years"
In the V-VII centuries on the territory of modern Russia there was the Turkic Kaganate, and later - the Khazar (Lower Volga, Northern Caucasus). In the VIII century - the south of Primorye was a member of the state of Bohai.
According to the "Tale of Bygone Years" (alsocalled the "Original Chronicle" or "Nestorova's Chronicle"), the dated period in the history of Ancient Rus (so to speak, Russia, as an initial state formation) began in 852, during the reign of Emperor Michael. This time, as some scientists believe, "when the Russian land first began to be called." A decade later the Normans (Sineus, Truvor, Rurik) united the surrounding lands. It is this date (862) that is considered to be the year of the founding of Russia as a state (in 2012 we officially, at the state level celebrated the anniversary - 1150 years - the founding of Russia). And answering the question "how many years of Russia", we, of course, this is exactly what we mean.
Soon Rurik becomes the sole rulerthe country, founded Novgorod, puts its governors in Rostov and Murom. And his successor, Prince Oleg, captures Kiev, uniting all the lands in one Old Russian State.
By the way, about the names: "Russs" were originally called overseas Varangians, who gradually merged with the meadows. The monetary unit of the Rus was considered to be the hryvnia, and they worshiped the pagan god Perun.
Many more rulers of the Old Russian state were replaced, but by the middle of the 12th century, as a single and centralized state, it ceased to exist, giving way to several independent principalities.
Igo and the Crusaders
In the forties of the 13th century, many Russian landsThey are invaded by the Mongol-Tatar tribes of Khan Baty. Some large cities were destroyed, scattered princedoms were exorbitant tribute. And the Novgorod princes enter into battle with the Crusaders and Swedes. By the XV century, Galicia was occupied by Poland, and most of Russia was part of the Lithuanian principality.
Muscovy or the Russian Kingdom
Approximately from the XIV century, a new center is being formedmanagement - the principality of Moscow. Under Tsar Ivan III, the tribute paid to the tribute to the Horde, which leads to the end of Iga. Vasily III continues the unification of the lands, waging wars with neighboring countries. Under Ivan the Terrible, the state sets itself the task of collecting all the previously lost Russian lands. Formed a noble horse army. Foot Streletsky - armed with small arms.
Great merit of this king in the formationstatehood of Russia. After all, it was he who proclaimed the creation of the Russian Empire (1721), introduced a single subordination and centralization of power in a country that occupied a vast territory. And no matter how historians today did not relate to the deeds of Peter the Great, the question "when Russia appeared as a powerful state that exerts influence over many countries of the world", one can answer: under Peter I.
Our country, Russia - has the richesthistory. You can still list the milestones of the creation of its statehood for a long time. Ancient Rus, the Age of Principalities, the Russian Empire, the Russian Empire, the Russian Republic, the RSFSR, the USSR, and the Russian Federation. And these are just basic! What is important is that the continuity of Russian statehood dates back more than a thousand years, and its territory today is one of the most extensive in the world.
The current state of the Russian Federationincludes eighty-five subjects (after the annexation in 2014 of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the independent city of Sevastopol), borders with the territories of eighteen countries of the world. Its population is much national and consists of more than one hundred and eighty nationalities and nationalities, adherents more than fifteen (according to some - twenty-five) world religions, the main of which, of course - Orthodoxy. In truth, the scale is impressive, like the very notion - Russia.