Coarse and fine water filters: species overview + installation and connection rules
To be able to control the quality of water, it is necessary to choose the right filtration system. The first element is its coarse filter. It removes insoluble mist and abrasive particles from water.
Further in the system, you can install a device with a more fine cleaning, which will continue the process of removing impurities and allow the use of water as drinking water.
Filtration stages in the process of water treatment
The first, most important step in water treatment is mechanical cleaning. Primary devices remove particles from 1 micron and above from water. They perform an indispensable function in the filtration process, without which further water treatment is impossible.
Rust, sand, clay particles, scale from old water pipes - everything is removed to get clear water at the outlet.
Only after the first stage of pre-filtration, one can proceed to the elimination of organic impurities, heavy metal compounds, chemical elements and microorganisms. For this purpose, ultra-thin filtration devices are used.
More specifically, the need to clean up any pollutants can only be determined on the basis of the results of analyzes.
In order to make the right choice of the filter, it is necessary to clearly define what its installation is for:
- for filtering hot and / or cold water;
- what kind of contaminants should be cleaned;
- What is the performance and volume of loading must have a filter
- for what purposes - to protect plumbing and equipment or for drinking water and cooking.
It is also necessary to take into account where the device will be used - in a private house, apartment, in a boiler room or at an industrial enterprise.
Device and application of coarse filters
Devices of rough cleaning can have a different design, but the principle of their work is similar. Inside they have a removable element, which can be in the form of a metal mesh, a disk, a cartridge - it performs filtering. There is also a drain to collect pollution. To remove collected garbage, the device is periodically washed.
Additionally, the devices can be equipped with a pressure gauge to help monitor the pressure in the system. A drop in water pressure may signal that it is time to change or flush the cartridge, grid.
Filters can also be produced in conjunction with a gearbox, which lowers the pressure, extinguishes water hammer. Some models have valves.
General properties and differences of different models are in the following characteristics:
- Filter elementMetal mesh, polypropylene fiber cartridge, disk element are often used for rough cleaning.
- The method of cleaning from accumulated dirt. Separate devices for those that are washed in manual mode and self-washing.
- Possibility of use for hot, warm or cold water.
All differences affect the functionality of devices. Therefore, further - in more detail about their capabilities.
Coarse sediment filters
Sedimentary filters include devices with a mesh for filtration. They are made mainly of metal casing (brass or stainless steel) with a straight or oblique tap located directly perpendicular or at an angle. Inside, in the course of the water is placed stainless steel mesh.
There are also models of conical axial devices in which the body is straight and the filtering grid has the shape of a cone and is located inside. Their design provides low hydraulic resistance.
They are installed on the site of the steam heating system in front of the circulation pump, in the water supply system - in front of the water meter. When installed in front of the pump, it is necessary to study the parameters in order to prevent an increase in the load on the pump. In addition, some manufacturers directly prohibit the installation of any devices in front of their equipment.
A filter in the form of a cylinder of metal mesh is used for installation in the area of suction of water from the source. It is used to prevent large debris from entering the water supply system and to prevent damage to the pump.
Self-cleaning main filters
The design of the filter consists of a housing, cartridge, tap for washing. Metal or plastic housing has two holes that are connected to the water mains.Stainless steel filtering mesh - removable, retains mechanical impurities from 100 microns.
There is a backwash valve in the bottom of the bowl. Some models are equipped with a manometer to monitor the degree of contamination.
The principle of operation of the device is the flow through the filter element - a removable stainless steel cartridge. Mechanical pollution at the same time linger in the grid. Some of them remain in it, and some of them settle at the bottom of the hull.
The feature of self-washing devices is the ability to remove accumulated dirt without disassembling and unwinding the case. To do this, open the faucet in the bottom of the hull and flush the water into the tank or into the sewer.
The debris is washed away in a stream, and the device continues to operate as usual. To remove old deposits on the grid, you can remove it and clean it more thoroughly.
Cleaning with disc filters
The devices are mainly used for preliminary water treatment; they prepare water for further purification, softening and deironing. Installed in water supply systems, heating plants, are used in irrigation systems, including drip.
As the filtering element serve polymeric disks, dressed on an axis and tightly squeezed together. Their surface is covered with small grooves, the dimensions of which determine the degree of cleaning, ranging from 20 to 400 microns.
The cleaning process goes like this: a stream of water fills the casing and seeps through the flow-through grooves in the discs, and then is diverted to the outlet. Over time, the dirt settles and accumulates on the surface.
The decrease in water pressure is a signal that the device requires cleaning again. You can determine the degree of clogging with a pressure gauge.
Fine and coarse cartridge filters
Cartridge filters are very popular because they are relatively inexpensive and can be used for filtering industrial and drinking water.Free water from coarse suspensions - sand, rust, as well as from small particles up to 1 micron (0.001 mm).
Do well in cleaning up the turbidity. Devices with a capacity of from 100 to 20 microns are used on main filters for coarse cleaning, from 10 to 1 microns used for the treatment of drinking water.
Let out them in the form of a flask with a cartridge from polyester or the twisted polypropylene thread. It is installed on the pipeline. After exhaustion of a resource of a cartridge make its replacement. The removable element is not subject to washing and reuse.
Filler materials for cartridges
For the manufacture of the cartridge using polypropylene fiber, woven polypropylene rope (cord), cellulose impregnated with polyester, nylon cord. But it is propylene that has gained the most popularity due to the fact that it has a low cost, is not exposed to chemical substances, and is not destroyed by the action of biological organisms.
Filters made of polypropylene cord use a special winding method, which allows larger suspensions to settle on the outside of the cartridge, while small particles remain inside the skein. They are not very quickly clogged, but the more they exhaust their resources, the more they let in pollution.
For plumbing this is a positive property, because a dirty filter does not reduce the pressure in the system.
Polypropylene fiber has a foam structure, which contains small bubbles, they accumulate pollution. Disadvantages of the material is manifested in cheap low-quality models.
In them, during water purification, the external filtration ball is clogged, while the inner layer can remain clean, that is, not participate in the filtration process. But high-quality cartridges work the entire surface.
The temperature of use of products made of polypropylene 1 - 52 ° C.They can be used for cold and warm water. For the treatment of hot water it is necessary to use cartridges of cotton fibers impregnated with a special substance. They endure high temperatures (up to +93 ° C), exposure to microorganisms and various substances.
Ultra-thin cleaning for drinking water
After the removal of solid particles and turbidity from water during the rough cleaning, there are still many substances in it - dissolved impurities and harmful microorganisms, the presence of which makes it impossible to use it to quench thirst.
The new generation of fine filters are capable of purifying water to such an extent that it is not necessary to boil it to get drunk.
Sorption filters for cleaning
Sorption filters are used to remove sand, sludge, rust fibers, various impurities of a size of 20-40 microns, including clay and colloidal iron. They have a high resource and performance and can accumulate a large number of suspensions.
Able to neutralize odors, pathogenic bacteria. Some models of devices enrich water with iodine and fluorine, in some they use silver ions that neutralize harmful microorganisms.
Granular activated carbon or aluminosilicates are used for absorption. Activated carbon copes with substances such as chlorine, radioactive elements, pesticides, heavy metals, petroleum products and dyes. Absorbs chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, eliminating water from excessive hardness.
Aluminosilicates neutralize heavy metals, organic impurities, establish the optimal acid-base balance.
Sorption filters can be manufactured for domestic purposes - in the form of jugs or tanks, and for processing large volumes - as main devices. Regeneration is carried out using reverse flow of water. A significant drawback of such filtering systems is the high cost, several times higher than the cost of other installations.
Ion exchange filters for water softening
Ion exchange filters serve to soften water, remove organic impurities. They are made in the form of a plastic or metal (stainless steel) case with an ion-exchange material, and containers for regenerating (salt) solution.The principle of operation is based on the passage of water through bulk filters, where it gets rid of hardness ions.
The effectiveness of the work depends on the chemical indicators of water, filter material and the temperature in the room.
The main drawback of such installations is the complexity of maintenance, which requires the use of regenerating tanks, the disposal of waste components, and a small filter resource — about 200–800 liters.
Membrane (reverse osmosis) filter
The cleaning technology using membrane filters is based on the passage of water through a corrugated material of a large area with pores no more than 3 microns. At the same time, the membrane filter keeps impurities on the surface without passing them inward, which significantly increases the life of the filter material.
Water enters the membrane filter through an inlet with an O-ring, using a high-pressure pump. After passing through all the filtration stages, it is divided into permeate (highly purified water) and condensate (solution of various impurities), which accumulates in the drainage collector.
The degree of filtration depends on the size of pores in the membrane:
- up to 1 micron -microfiltration;
- up to 0.1 microns -ultrafiltration;
- to 0.01 microns -nanofiltration;
- less than 0.001 microns -reverse osmosis.
Reverse osmosis plants have the highest degree of filtration of water - purifying it at the molecular level, removing all microorganisms, salts of heavy metals, organic impurities.
After passing through such a filter, only 20–30% of mineral substances remain in the water; it becomes poorly mineralized, which can be interpreted both as a virtue and a disadvantage.
Filter maintenance and cartridge replacement
Sediment filter maintenance involves periodic cleaning of the filter screen. Before starting work, you need to turn off the tap, then unscrew the lid of the revision and remove the grid. The frequency of inspections depends on the quality of water, on the degree of its pollution. After cleaning, you must install the elements in place and check for leaks.
To clean disc filters, they must be removed from the line, open the housing and remove the filter element. When removing the filter, the latch, pressing the disks to each other, is weakened and they are unclenched. Then all the elements are washed, for more thorough cleaning the device is disassembled and cleaned with a brush or sponge.
Polypropylene cartridge filters must be replaced after contamination.Manufacturers of different models on the packaging indicate the amount of water in liters that the device can clean.
Objectively, the duration of the filter depends on the state of water in a centralized water supply system or an autonomous source. Therefore, it can serve up to six months. But with a rush of plumbing or for other reasons, it can clog up even in one day.
In reverse osmosis fine filters, the replacement period for replacement elements depends on the type of filler. For prefilters it is half a year, for a coal postfilter - a year, for a membrane - 2–2.5 years.
To properly place the replaceable elements, you must remember their original location. Before you start drinking water from a new filter or cartridge, you must flush the system — drain the water after you first fill the tank.
After a long system downtime, more than 3 months, and even after the replacement of replaceable elements, it is disinfected. If the filter shows rapid development of microorganisms and fouling of prefilters, it is recommended to additionally install an ultraviolet lamp complete with a main prefilter.
Rules for the installation of filtration devices
When installing multi-stage cleaning, the first stage is always a filter that performs a rough cleaning. When using several types of systems, first mount the device with a large micronage.
If you install filters of different cleaning methods in the wrong sequence, they will not be able to fully perform the task.
Installation of filtering devices in front of pumping equipment is not recommended. The exceptions are screen filters with about zero resistance, which protect the pump from large debris.
The use of any other filters - iron removers, softeners, etc. - will increase the load on the pumping station and cause its premature wear. Installation, adjustment and repair is carried out in the absence of pressure in the water supply system.
Installation of sediment filters (mud collectors)
Oblique and straight coupling filters are installed on horizontal sections of the water pipe exclusively in the direction of flow. Oblique filters can also be mounted on a vertical pipeline if the flow moves from top to bottom.
The filter should not be subject to vibration, bending, compression and stretching of the pipeline. When installing it, uniform fastening of the fastener is achieved, if necessary, compensators and supports are installed to reduce the load.
The correct location of the filter - lid revision down. For preventive maintenance under the device provide free space.
Mesh filters are divided into coupling and flange in the way of tie-in. The first type is installed on pipes of small diameters, the second type is used for main water supply systems, interchanges in the water supply system of apartment buildings. On pipes with a diameter of up to two inches used threaded filters, the so-called American.
How to install a reverse osmosis system
Installation of the filter is carried out in an easily accessible place on a horizontal section of the water pipe with a downwardly directed flask. When installing a water meter filter must be placed in front of him.
Installation is carried out in the following sequence:
- An anaerobic sealant is applied to the connecting threads, filling all the grooves with a uniform layer and leaving it to cure for 15 minutes.
- Next, attach the fastener to the filter, paying attention to the direction of flow of water in the water supply.
- Putting the filter fasteners to the wall, and making sure that the device bends coincide with the position of the pipe, mark the place for the holes.
- Drill holes and insert dowels, then, using screws, screw the holder with the filter to the wall.
- To connect the filter taps to the line, cut the pipe and bend it in order to align its axis with the filter axis. So that the pipe does not break when it is bent, a special jig is brought into the middle.
- Then put a compression ring and a nut on a pipe, insert a fitting (against the stop). The ferrule is pulled tight against the fitting and the nut is tightened.
- Connect the fitting to the filter and tighten the union nut, tightly tightening the key.
After installation, open the water, check for leaks.For the convenience of repair and maintenance on both sides of the device provide shut-off valves.
Connection of reverse osmosis filter
Installation of the cleaning system consists of the assembly of individual elements and does not require special tools. Therefore, it can even hold a person who has never done this.
The manufacturer recommends placing the filter under the kitchen sink. To make it comfortable to collect filtered water, install a separate faucet. To install it, you will have to drill a hole in the corner of the sink or on the worktop near the sink.
The reverse osmosis filter is assembled as a constructor. Installation consists of the following stages:
- installation of the drinking tap and its connection to the filter;
- connection to the cold water pipeline;
- installation of the ball valve of the tank and drainage clamp;
- start-up and flushing the system.
For good performance and performance of the reverse osmosis filter, it is required to ensure a normal pressure in the system. If the water pressure in the supply pipe does not exceed 2.8 bar, it is recommended to install a pressure boosting pump.
It is installed before the first filter in the gap of the incoming tube. When using a pump, it is imperative to install a high pressure sensor - it automates the process of turning off and on the equipment.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to choose a filter according to the degree and method of cleaning:
How to insert a filter in the water supply system:
Installation of reverse osmosis filter and change of cartridges:
When choosing a device for water treatment is not a question, what filter to install - for coarse or fine cleaning. It is more correct to ask the question for what purposes water will be used and what result should be achieved.
Apply the device for filtering water need from rough cleaning and ending, if necessary, the most subtle, which will remove impurities to the smallest particles.