Animals of the Voronezh region, listed in the Red Book. List of rare and endangered species
The amazing nature of the Voronezh region, withrivers Don, Usmanka, Voronezh, attracts a large number of animals. Moderate climate, with a rainy and cool summer and a relatively mild winter, makes living in this area a huge number of animals. In the Voronezh region, the forest-steppe and the steppe zone are mixed.
Fauna of the Voronezh Region
Fauna of the Voronezh region is rich and diverse.Not only large animals such as moose, wild boar deer, noble deer and wolves are found here. But also a variety of beasts of the forest-steppe, such as caresses, shrews and bats. Nowhere else in the world is there such a unique animal as the desman who chose the Voronezh region as a home from ancient times.
In the open steppe areas live strepety,bustards and marmots. The marmot, a bighorn, listed in the Red Book, was almost completely destroyed in the 30s of the XX century, but later its population was restored. Now a large number of marmots live on the territory of the south of the region, their numbers have been completely restored.
Variety of birds in the open spaces of the regionIt is represented also by seagulls, and storks, marsh-meadow game and usual sparrows, swifts and pigeons. Rare species of birds have also taken a liking to these lands. Golden eagles, white-tailed eagles and black swans live in the reserves.
On the banks of the rivers settled beavers, otters, curators andmuskrats. And in the rivers - marsh turtles and frogs coexist with the most diverse fish. Breams, pike-perches, catfishes and wild carp are found along with sterlet and burbots, listed in the Red Book.
In cities and smaller settlements alsoSome animals of the Voronezh region, listed in the Red Book, have found shelter. Bats, martens, caresses, ringed turtledoves, owls, black swans and white storks. Numerous representatives of birds, such as sparrows, crows, pigeons and starlings, have become permanent residents.
The fauna of the Voronezh region totals up to70 species of mammals, 10 species of amphibians and 9 species of reptiles, 290 species of birds and more than ten thousand insects, 50 species of fish. Some species of animals need protection and are listed in the Red Book.
The laws of nature can not be violated, because irreparable things can happen. Our land requires a trembling and respectful attitude towards nature on the part of man.
But unfortunately, a person makes a multitudeerrors. The disappearing animals of the Voronezh Region are a vivid example of this. In many respects, the reduction of populations is associated with environmental problems, which take place not only locally, but are of a global nature. Urbanization and construction of factories and industries polluting the environment, leads to the fact that the wild animals of the Voronezh region disappear.
Violation of the environment in the Voronezh region
The problem with ecology has become essential forterritory of the Voronezh region, and not only because of the neighborhood with the ecologically dirty central regions of Russia. But also because large industrial cities such as Voronezh, Liski, Rossosh and others have a huge problem with insufficiently treated sewage. For the year of polluting substances and by-products in sewage, more than 90 thousand tons are discharged.
The increasing rate of urbanizationpollution of the atmosphere. Exhaust gases from cars pollute the air to a greater extent (more than 90% of the pollution is due to automobile exhausts). And the construction of cities and their expansion leads to a reduction in the habitat of animals.
The landfill areas (including illegal ones) occupy more than 230 hectares. This factor also negatively affects the fauna of the Voronezh region.
For the protection of the environment and conservation of flora andfauna in the region are organized reserves and sanctuaries. Unique places are taken under protection, and animals of the Voronezh region, listed in the Red Book, are taken under special control.
To protect the beaver and preserve its strength in theIn 1923 the State Voronezh Reserve was organized. Today it is complex, its area has increased to 31 thousand hectares. In its territory there are more than 57 species of mammals. Two animals are listed in the Red Book of Russia. It is a Russian muskrat (which, by the way, has been living on this territory for more than 30 million years) and a gigantic vespers.
In reserve reserve number of hedgehogs after fatal frosts.
Also engaged in the restoration of the populationhare and white hare. With the original task - guardianship of the inhabitants of ponds of beavers - the reserve has long been coped. The river beaver was propagated and settled in many parts of the country.
Zapovednye places of the Voronezh region
In the valley of the Usman River, there is the Usmansky Bor,Attractive in the world of animals in that there are no people on its territory. In many respects, thanks to this, the animals of the Voronezh region, listed in the Red Data Book, escaped complete extinction.
A unique animal, the Russian desman, lives andin the Khoper Reserve, in the valley of the Khoper River. Its area is half the size of the Voronezh Reserve. On its territory, in addition to preserving the desman, they also cultivate spotted deer and bison brought from different parts of our country.
In the Voronezh region, nine reserves were established. On their territory hunting is allowed. Many monuments of nature, as well as natural complexes created by human hands.
Along with the animals, a whole group of plants alsotremblingly guarded by the authorities. Regular measures are taken to protect nature, enhance the culture of staying in the forests. There is propaganda against water and air pollution. Numerous conservation measures have been taken in order to prevent the disappearance of rare species in the animal world.
The appearance of the Red Book
Over the past two decades, humanity, by various circumstances, destroyed more than 200 species of animals. And in the middle of the twentieth century, scientists seriously thought about the preservation of animals and plants on earth.
The very appearance of the Red Book dates back toformation of the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1948. Zoologists, botanists and ecologists all over the world have compiled, later published, lists of animals and plants that are on the brink of extinction. Since this was a warning of danger, both the color and the name were chosen appropriate. So the first Red Book appeared.
For each species, a strategy was developed to increase the number.
All pages of the Red Book are colored. Each color indicates at which stage this or that species is located:
- Red color means animals or plants, the danger of extinction of which is especially great already in the near future.
- On the yellow pages there are animals, the number of which is steadily declining, and in the very near future, human intervention will be required to save them.
- White pages talk about the rarest species in the world.
- Green pages are occupied by animals and plants, whose population is already safe, they have already been saved.
- Gray color was taken for poorly studied and unknown species.
The Red Book in the Voronezh Region
In the Soviet Union, the first Red Book was published 30 years after the creation of the International Red Book. And in Russia it went to print in 2001.
The Red Book of the Voronezh Region, created in2008, rare and endangered species of plants and animals are recorded. Some species are so unique that they live only in the territory of local reserves. The book depicts the animals themselves of the Red Book of the Voronezh Region, a description of their behavior and habitats are also presented. In the first volume only plants, lichens and fungi are brought. In the second - animals (total 384 species). Some animals of the Voronezh region, listed in the Red Book, are also in the Red Book of Russia.
List of disappearing and extinct animals of the Voronezh Region
Probably missing (with the designation 0) are:
- 8 species of fish (Azov beluga, Russian and Black Sea-Azov sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, Black Sea-Azov herring, Russian raspberry, star-tailed poodle and Black Sea trout);
- 5 species of birds (steppe turtulace, large curlew, steppe kestrel, kosach and wattle warbler).
Endangered animals are more numerous, they are assigned category 1:
- 2 species of fish (common minnow, common stump);
- 15 species of birds (avdotka, black stork, osprey, field and steppe harrier, barrow, steppe eagle, small and large spotted eagle, burial ground, saker, peregrine falcon, strept, steppe lark, owl)
- 2 species of reptiles (patterned skid, steppe adder).
Dangerous species, with a declining population, are designated by category 2:
- 3 species of fish (sterlet, shchaya Azovo-Black Sea, bersh);
- 8 species of birds (Lesser White-fronted Goose, Kulik-Magpie, Dupel, Sisovoronka, Serpentine, Kobchik, House Owl, Clintuh);
- 2 species of mammals (dressing, Russian desman).
Rare animals are designated in the Red Book by category 3:
- 3 species of fish (carp, white fox, common fish);
- 2 species of amphibians (gray toad, herbal frog);
- 26 species of birds (gray goose, swan-swan, smallseagull, white-cheeked tern, small tern, stilt, herbalist, custodian, large spindle, white stork, common osoid, European tyvik, eagle-dwarf, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, common kestrel, gray crane, bustard, field kite, prosyanka, black-beaked and gray shrike, a stovepaw, a yellow, small and greyish-cheeked grebe);
- 7 species of mammals (river otter, mink, steppehorse, giant evening, small kutor, common mole, squirrel);
- 5 species of reptiles (medina, common copperfish, viviparous lizard, Nikolsky's viper, swamp turtle).
Not only the Book
To preserve the animal and plant life,its harmonious development, it is not enough just one Red Book. The efforts of all people, the entire population of the planet, are needed to mitigate the environmental situation.
And in order to reduce environmental pollution, not only in the Voronezh region, but all over the world, it is necessary to resolve an increasingly acute issue with waste disposal.
It is necessary to protect nature - to take care of plants and animals. Love the world around us and study it. And then rare animals of the Voronezh region will not disappear from the face of the earth.