Adjusting the pumping station: the rules and algorithm for setting up equipment operation
For a stable supply of water with the required pressure values, it is not enough just to buy a pumping station. The equipment for autonomous water supply must also be set up, launched and properly operated. Admit it, not all of us are familiar with the subtleties of customization. And the prospect of spoiling devices with incorrect actions is not too tempting, do you agree?
We are ready to share with you valuable information on how to adjust the pumping station. Our article describes the techniques and rules for the elimination of violations in the work associated with insufficient high pressure. Its author shares personal experience in correcting such situations.
You will learn about the causes of pressure drop and become familiar with the methods of their elimination. Graphic and photo applications will explain how to properly configure the pumping system.In the development of the material will effectively assist the video.
Features of the device pumping station
The pumping station, completed by the manufacturer, is a mechanism for the forced supply of water. The scheme of its work to the limit is simple. The pump pumps water into an elastic container located inside the accumulator. When filled with water, it stretches and presses on that part of the hydraulic tank, which is filled with air or gas. The pressure, reaching a certain level, causes the pump to shut down.
During water intake, the pressure in the system drops, and at a certain point, when the values set by the owner are reached, the pump starts to work again. For switching off and on the device is responsible for the relay, the pressure level control is carried out using a pressure gauge.
Causes of equipment problems
The statistics of malfunctions in the operation of household pumping stations says that most often problems arise because of the violation of the integrity of the tank of the accumulator, pipeline, water or air leakage, as well as due to various contaminants in the system.
The need to intervene in its work may arise due to many reasons:
- Sand and various substances dissolved in water can cause corrosion, lead to malfunctions and reduce equipment performance. To prevent clogging of the device, it is necessary to use water purifying filters.
- The decrease in air pressure in the station causes frequent pump triggering and premature wear. It is recommended to measure the air pressure from time to time and adjust it if necessary.
- The lack of tightness of the joints of the suction piping is the reason that the engine is working without shutdown, but cannot pump the liquid.
- Improper adjustment of the pressure of the pumping station can also cause inconvenience and even damage to the system.
To extend the life of the station, it is recommended to periodically audit. Any adjustment work should be started by disconnecting from the power grid and draining the water.
Correction of errors in the work
Before embarking on a more serious interference with the operation of the equipment, it is necessary to take the most simple measures - clean the filters and eliminate leaks. If they did not produce results, then proceed to further steps, trying to identify the root cause. The next thing to do is to adjust the pressure in the reservoir of the accumulator and adjust the pressure switch.
Below are the most common deviations in the operation of a household pumping station, which the user may try to solve on his own. For more serious problems, please contact the service center.
Violation of operating rules
If the station works continuously, without shutting down, the improper adjustment of the relay is probably the cause - high pressure is setshutdown. It also happens that the engine works, but the station does not pump water. The reason may be as follows:
- When first started, the pump was not filled with water. It is necessary to correct the situation by pouring water through a special funnel.
- The integrity of the pipeline is broken or an airlock has formed in the pipe or in the suction valve. In order to detect a specific reason, it is necessary to make sure that: the receiving valve and all connections are tight, there are no bends, contractions, or hydraulic locks along the entire length of the suction pipe. All malfunctions are eliminated, if necessary, replace damaged areas.
- The equipment works without access to water (dry). It is necessary to check why it is not there or to identify and eliminate other reasons.
- Pipeline clogged - need to clean the system from contamination.
It happens that the station is often triggered and turned off. Most likely, this is due to the damaged membrane (then you need to replace it), or the system lacks the necessary pressure. In the latter case, it is necessary to measure the presence of air, check the tank for cracks and damage.
It is less likely, but it may happen that the check valve is open and blocked due to ingress of debris or a foreign object. In such a situation, you will have to disassemble the pipeline in the area of possible clogging and fix the problem.
Malfunctions in the engine
The engine of the household station does not work and does not emit noise, perhaps for the following reasons:
- The equipment is disconnected from the power supply or there is no line voltage. You need to check the wiring diagram.
- Blown fuse. In this case, you need to replace the element.
- If you can not turn the fan impeller - then it is jammed. Need to find out why.
- Damaged relay. He should try to adjust or, if not, replace with a new one.
Malfunctions in the engine often force the user to use the services of the service center.
Problems with water pressure in the system
The lack of water pressure in the system can be explained by several reasons:
- The pressure of water or air in the system is set to an unacceptably low value. Then you need to adjust the operation of the relay in accordance with the recommended parameters.
- Pump piping or impeller blocked. Cleaning the elements of the pumping station from contamination may help to solve the problem.
- Air enters the pipeline. Checking the pipeline elements and their connections for tightness will be able to confirm or deny this version.
Poor water supply is also caused by the fact that air is being drawn in due to loose connections of water pipes or the water level has dropped so much that when it is drawn in, air is pumped into the system.
Audit of storage tank
Starting work on adjusting the equipment, disconnect the system from the network, close the pressure valve on the water intake side. Turn off the faucet and drain the water, and the remains down through the pressure hose, disconnecting it from the membrane tank.First check the air pressure in the tank of the accumulator.
The role of the hydroaccumulator in the system
The diaphragm tank of a pumping station is, in fact, a metal tank with a rubber bulb located inside, which is designed to collect water. Air is pumped into the free space between the rubber bulb and the walls of the tank. In some models of hydroaccumulators, the tank is divided in half by a membrane, which divides the container into two compartments - for water and air.
The more water enters the device, the more it compresses the air, increasing its pressure, which tends to push water out of the tank. This allows you to maintain a stable water pressure even during pump inactivity.
The accumulator requires regular maintenance, removal of air from the pear, which enters it with water in the form of small bubbles and gradually accumulates there, reducing the useful volume.For this, a special valve is provided on top of large tanks. With small tanks, you have to trick to remove air: de-energize the system and drain and fill the tank several times.
Air pressure control
Although the manufacturer conducts the adjustment of all elements of the pumping station at the production stage, it is necessary to recheck the pressure even in the new equipment, since at the time of sale it may slightly decrease. A device that is operated, inspect up to two times a year.
For measurements using the most accurate pressure gauge possible, because even a small error of 0.5 bar can affect the operation of the equipment. If there is an opportunity to use the automobile manometer, with a scale, with the smallest graduation - this will provide more reliable results.
The indicator of air pressure in the membrane tank should correspond to 0.9-fold switching pressure of the pumping station (set using a relay). For tanks with different volume, the indicator can be from one to two bar. Adjustment is carried out through the nipple, pumping or bleed excess air.
For normal operation, the station is equipped with obligatory control and regulating devices:
The less air is pumped into the system, the more water it can accumulate. The water pressure will be strong when the tank is full, and more and more weakened when the water intake. If these drops are comfortable for the consumer, then you can leave the pressure at the lowest acceptable level, but not less than 1 bar. A lower value may lead to friction of the pear filled with water against the walls of the tank and its damage.
In order to install a strong water pressure in the water supply system, it is necessary to fix the air pressure in the range of about 1.5 bar.Thus, the difference in pressure with a filled and empty tank will be less noticeable, ensuring an even and strong flow of water.
Using relays to adjust pressure
For the automation of the system, the pressure switch is responsible - the device that controls the pump station, performing the function of switching the device on and off. It also prevents the system from creating excessive pressure.
# 1: The principle of the pressure sensor
The main element of the relay is a group of contacts, which is fixed on a metal base and is responsible for switching the device on and off. Nearby are two springs of different sizes to adjust the pressure inside the system. Below to the metal base is mounted a membrane cover, under which is placed the membrane itself and the piston of metal. On top of everything is covered with a plastic cap.
In the process of operating the device can be divided into several stages:
- When you turn on the tap, the water for some time comes to the sanitary point of the filled tank. When this pressure is present in the system, gradually begins to fall, and the membrane ceases to press on the piston. The contact closes, the pump turns on.
- The pump works by pumping water to the consumer, and when all taps are turned off, it fills the tank with water.
- With the gradual filling of the accumulator tank, the pressure increases, and it begins to act on the membrane, and that pressure on the piston. As a result, the contacts open, and the pump stops.
On how the relay is configured, depends on the frequency of switching on the station, water pressure and even the service life of the equipment. If the parameters are incorrectly set, the pump will not operate at all or will work continuously.
# 2: Adjustment and calculation of required pressure
The new device already has the factory settings of the relay, but, nevertheless, it is better to check them additionally.Starting the adjustment, it is necessary to find out the values recommended by the manufacturer for setting the permissible pressure threshold (for closing and opening of contacts).
In the event of a breakdown of the pumping station, due to improper adjustment, the manufacturer has the full right to waive its warranty.
The manufacturer calculates the allowable pressure when switching on and off the device, taking into account the expected features of operation. They are taken into account in the development of operating parameters for different models of pumping stations.
The inclusion value is equal to the sum:
- The required pressure at the highest point of the plumbing system where water is taken;
- Differences between the height of the highest point of the water intake and the pump;
- Pipeline water pressure loss.
The shutdown rate is calculated as follows: to the shutdown pressure, plus one and take away one and a half bar. In this case, the shut-off pressure must not be allowed to exceed the maximum permissible pressure that occurs at the exit of the pipeline from the pump.
# 3: Setting Recommended Settings
Before you change the settings, you must fix the previous figures with a pressure gauge. Turning on the pump, record the pressure at the time of switching off and on. This will help determine which way to adjust - in the direction of reduction or increase.
Further actions have the following sequence:
- Disconnect the station from the power supply, flush the water and open the relay cover with a wrench.
- The pump turn-on pressure is adjusted by turning the nut that holds the large spring (P). By twisting it in the direction of the clockwise movement, the compression of the spring and the setting of the necessary switching pressure are achieved. In various device models, the permissible values can vary from 1.1 to 2.2 bar.
- By rotating the small nut (∆Р) in the direction of the clockwise movement, you can increase the gap between the value of the disconnecting pressure and switching on the device, which is usually 1 bar.Thus, the pressure off can be fixed at values in the range from 2.2 bar to 3.3 bar.
An important nuance is that the small spring does not regulate the cut-off threshold, as some mistakenly understand. It sets exactly the delta between the values of turning on the station, and its shutdown. That is, a fully weakened spring will not create a difference - the delta will be zero and the on and off values will be the same. But, the more its tighten, the greater will be the difference between them.
Check the correctness of the indicators set using a pressure gauge. If it was not possible to reach the required values on the first attempt, the adjustment is continued.
# 4: Select non-standard pressure values
You can set a different pressure level in the device, different from the manufacturer's recommendations, by adjusting the equipment to individual user requests. By increasing the range when switching on and off, they achieve more rare station triggers.
This makes the service device longer, but makes the pressure of the water uneven. Reducing the difference, achieve a stable pressure, but the pump will operate more often.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to adjust the pressure of the station, will demonstrate the video:
Video on what to do if the station often triggers:
When conducting independent adjustment of the pumping station, it is necessary to take into account that sometimes changes to the factory recommendations can impair the operation of the water supply system. Pump, hoses, plumbing fixtures - all have extreme pressure values, the violation of which will lead to breakdowns. Therefore, before embarking on independent actions, it is better to seek advice from an experienced specialist.